Public Awareness and Views of K-12 Online Learning in Michigan 2019

Suggested Citation

Public Sector Consultants (2019). Public awareness and views of K-12 online learning in Michigan 2019. Lansing, MI: Michigan Virtual University. Retrieved from https://mvlri.org/research/publications/public-awareness-views-k-12-online-learning-michigan-2019/.

From February 12 to 17, 2019, Public Sector Consultants Inc. (PSC) conducted surveys with 600 Michigan adults and 400 Michigan college students on behalf of Michigan Virtual. These surveys were part of ongoing public opinion research conducted by Michigan Virtual to better understand the opinions, preferences, and beliefs of Michigan residents about online learning opportunities for high school students in the state. The adult survey is a follow-up to similar polls conducted by PSC in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, and was designed to include common questions for comparison. The college student survey, new in 2017, includes questions about their specific experiences with online learning in high school and college. Taken together, these surveys allow for continued monitoring of opinion trends about online learning while providing important context about the experiences of current college students.

Introduction

From February 12 to 17, 2019, Public Sector Consultants Inc. (PSC) conducted surveys with 600 Michigan adults and 400 Michigan college students on behalf of Michigan Virtual. These surveys were part of ongoing public opinion research conducted by Michigan Virtual to better understand the opinions, preferences, and beliefs of Michigan residents about online learning opportunities for high school students in the state.

The survey of Michigan adults complements previous surveys completed in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, and includes opinions and preferences about online learning opportunities for public school students in the state. Identical question wording was used to allow for comparison. As was the case in 2017, for this iteration, PSC used electronic surveys with panelists that were recruited and vetted by Dynata, an online sampling and data collection company. As in past years, poststratification weights were applied for gender, race, age, income, and educational attainment using American Community Survey estimates of Michigan’s population.

The survey of Michigan college students includes questions about their specific experiences with online learning in high school and college, with results provided in raw (unweighted) form. Taken together, these surveys allow for continued monitoring of opinion trends about online learning while providing important context about the experiences of current college students.

This summary provides highlights of both 2019 online surveys, along with appropriate comparisons to the 2017 surveys. Frequency reports for both surveys are included as appendices below. In all tables in this report, percentages may not add up to 100 percent due to rounding.

Main Findings

Public opinion among Michigan’s adults continues to be consistent across survey years, and Michigan’s college students believe in the importance of online learning prior to attending college/university:

  • Michigan adults consistently view online learning as important: A strong—and statistically consistent—majority of respondents in 2014 (79 percent), 2015 (71 percent), 2016 (80 percent), 2017 (83 percent), and 2019 (77 percent) feel that it is somewhat or very important for middle school and high school students to have the option of enrolling in an online course at their local school district. This sentiment is even stronger in Michigan’s college students in both 2017 and 2019, with 85 and 91 percent (respectively) saying it is somewhat or very important.
  • Michigan college students see the value of online learning as a way to prepare for college: The vast majority of Michigan college students think that students who used a learning management system[1] (74 percent in 2019, 86 percent in 2017) or took an online course (76 percent in 2019, 78 percent in 2017) in high school are better prepared for college/university, and 77 percent (75 percent in 2017) feel that they would have benefited from having more online learning opportunities in high school.
  • More adult respondents believe Michigan high schoolers should take at least one online course prior to graduation: Looking at trends across the five survey years (2014–2019), there has been a 10 percent increase in the percentage of adults saying high schoolers should take at least one online course—from 63 percent in 2014 to 73 percent in 2019. This shift has come from a corresponding decrease in adults who believe there should be no such requirement—a sentiment that has fallen from roughly one-third of adults in 2014 to one-quarter in 2019.
  • More adult respondents believe that knowing how to learn online is critical to a student’s future success: In 2017, 75 percent of adults said knowing how to learn online is part of college and career readiness, and 77 percent said that all students would benefit from developing skills to be a successful online learner. In this survey, those responses increased to 87 percent and 86 percent, respectively.
  • A majority of college students now report that most or almost all of their high school classes used a learning management system: In the 2017 survey, when asked how many classes they took in high school that used a learning management system, the majority (62 percent) of respondents said that they took a few (35 percent) or none (27 percent). In 2019, the majority said almost all (34 percent) or most (20 percent) of their high school classes used this type of system—a substantial change in practice and experience across the two surveys. Similarly, while online learning activities are more common in college than high school, according to both 2019 and 2017 results, the margin of difference has decreased dramatically in the most recent survey.
  • Respondents consistently expect online learning to grow: Since 2015, adult respondents have consistently reported that while they expect less than half of current Michigan K–12 students to enroll in an online course during the next year, they expect roughly two-thirds will do so ten years from now. The 2019 results continue that pattern: Adults expect 31 percent of K–12 students to enroll in an online course in the next year and 60 percent within ten years. At the same time, nearly all (90 percent) of Michigan college students say it is very likely (46 percent) or somewhat likely (44 percent) that they will need to engage in online learning as part of their future job (e.g., professional development)—statistically identical to the results in 2017.

Survey of Michigan Adults

The electronic survey of 600 Michigan adults included 300 male and 300 female respondents and has a +/- 4.0 percent margin of error with 95 percent confidence. In comparison, surveys in 2017 and earlier engaged 800 respondents, resulting in a +/- 3.5 percent margin of error with 95 percent confidence. In general, the 2019 electronic sample was similarly representative compared to past telephone and Web panel samples. The 2019 panel was very accurate compared to the Michigan adult population by age, gender, and race/ethnicity, with a slight bias toward higher incomes and educational attainment. This difference, which was corrected via weighting, is likely due to the mode of data collection, and was more pronounced than in the 2017 panel (which, prior to weighting, was less representative by age and race than in 2019).

General Opinions

As shown in Table 1, there is consistent sentiment regarding the importance of online learning across all years of the survey. Respondents overwhelmingly see the importance of online learning for middle school and high school students, with a strong majority saying it is somewhat or very important for students to have the option of enrolling in an online course at their local school district.

Table 1. Importance of Online Learning in Michigan, 2014-2019
Level of Importance 2014 2015 2016 2017 2019
Very important 38% 33% 38% 38% 38%
Somewhat important 41% 38% 42% 45% 39%
Not that important 11% 16% 9% 12% 15%
Not at all important 9% 12% 10% 5% 8%
Don’t know/refused [VOLUNTEERED] 2% 2% 1% N/A N/A

At the same time, Table 2 shows an emerging change in sentiment toward online courses for high school students. While the percentage of adults believing Michigan high school students should be required to take at least one course online prior to graduation has remained statistically consistent across the five surveys, the percentage of adults saying requirements should be one online course each year has increased from 28 percent in 2014 to 39 percent in 2019. Moreover, a 10 percent shift—from 63 percent of adults expecting high schoolers to take at least one online course in 2014 to 73 percent in 2019—has come from a corresponding decrease in adults who believe there should be no such requirement. That sentiment has fallen from roughly one-third of adults in 2014 to one-quarter in 2019.

Table 2. Preference for Requiring Online Learning in Michigan, 2014–2019
Statement 2014 2015 2016 2017 2019
Michigan high school students should be required to take at least one online course prior to graduation. 35% 29% 29% 35% 34%
Michigan high school students should be required to take at least one online course each year prior to graduation. 28% 26% 26% 34% 39%
Michigan high school students should not be required to take an online course prior to graduation. 36% 43% 43% 31% 28%

Since 2015, respondents were asked how likely they felt current Michigan students in grades six through 12 were to take an online course in three specific settings: (1) college or vocational school, (2) the workforce, or (3) high school. Across those four surveys, the overwhelming majority of respondents (75 percent or more) feel that students are likely to take an online course in all three settings—with the strongest opinion that students will encounter online learning later in life, either as they continue their education/training after high school or start working.

Preferences

Respondents were presented with a series of factual statements about online learning in Michigan, and then asked if they felt the statements were true, false, or if they did not know. Across all years of the survey, respondents demonstrated a basic lack of knowledge. Between a third and half of respondents were unable to answer the questions (that is, they replied that they “didn’t know”), and only about a third could accurately indicate that the statements were, in fact, true (as shown in Table 3).

Table 3. Knowledge of Online Learning in Michigan, 2014-2019
2014 2015 2016 2017 2019
Statement True Don’t know True Don’t know True Don’t know True Don’t know True Don’t know
Michigan requires K–12 public school students to have an online learning experience in order to graduate from high school. 27% 32% 31% 42% 22% 43% 26% 30% 23% 43%
Michigan middle and high school students can take up to two online courses per academic term. 34% 49% 39% 50% 39% 51% 30% 51% 33% 50%
Each online student is required to have a local school staff member assigned to provide onsite support to the student during the online course. 41% 47% 45% 41% 36% 52%

This consistency in response is especially interesting in light of the change in sentiment noted in two of the main findings: that more adults believe high schoolers should take at least one online course prior to graduation, and that knowing how to learn online is critical to a student’s future success. Adult respondents are clearly more comfortable articulating the perceived need for online course skills than they are with the details about current online learning requirements. This is not surprising: Perception of an issue most often precedes detailed knowledge about an issue. But with these findings, we may be seeing the front edge of increased awareness prior to increasing demand for online courses and services.

Respondents were also asked to determine their preference for various online enrollment options and the reasons for selecting online courses, as shown in Table 4. If respondents did not have a child enrolled in a K‒12 Michigan school, they were asked to respond hypothetically. Across all survey years, the single-course options were preferred and statistically equivalent. With the most recent surveys, there is a slight preference emerging toward enrolling a child for a course they had previously failed and/or for a course not offered face-to-face by the school.

Table 4. Preferences for Online Enrollment Options and Reasons, 2015–2019
2015 2016 2017 2019
If you had a child in a K‒12 school, how likely would you be to enroll the child in . . . Very or Somewhat Likely Very or Somewhat Likely Very or Somewhat Likely Very or Somewhat Likely
A full-time, public cyber charter school where the child receives 100 percent of his/her instruction online 38% 45% 45% 43%
A single online course to overcome a scheduling conflict that prevents the child from taking the course face-to-face 71% 73% 70% 66%
A single online course to provide access to a course not offered face-to-face by the school. 73% 74% 70% 75%
A single online course to retake a course that the child had previously failed 72% 74% 78% 71%

NOTE: Questions were not asked in 2014

Correlations and Subgroup Differences

In addition to analyzing responses for all Michigan adults in the sample, PSC examined the responses of subgroups for any statistically significant differences in opinions and preferences, as well as any correlations.

Pearson correlations were run for three of the variables: the importance of online learning, the prevalence of online learning now, and the prevalence of online learning ten years from now. There were some statistically significant correlations among these variables at a 99 percent confidence level that were consistent with those found in previous survey years—and this trend persists when comparing 2017 to 2019.

  • The higher the rating of importance, the higher the predicted level of students to take an online course next year (p=.175 in 2019, versus .182 in 2017) and ten years from now (p=.228 in 2019 versus .181 in 2017).
  • The higher the percentage of students predicted to take an online course next year, the higher the predicted level was ten years from now (p=.663 in 2019, versus .641 in 2017).

In addition to running Pearson correlations, PSC used a Chi-Square test of association to look for statistically significant differences in importance by gender, race, age, education level, and whether respondents had school-age children in their household. Major differences are noted below.

Gender

  • Of female respondents, 41 percent felt that the option of enrolling in an online course in middle school or high school was very important, compared to 34 percent of male respondents—nearly identical to the sentiment in 2017 (42 and 34 percent, respectively) (p = .000).
  • Of female respondents, 77 percent were very likely or somewhat likely to enroll a child in an online course the child has previously failed, compared to 65 percent of males (p = .002).
  • Nearly twice as many female respondents than males expect 80 percent or more of Michigan’s high school students to be enrolled in at least one online course ten years from now (39 percent of females, 23 percent of males) (p = .000).

 Race

  • A very consistent 71 to 80 percent of all respondents by race believe it is very important or somewhat important for students in middle and high school to have the option of enrolling in an online course. However, the split between very and somewhat differed: While pluralities of white respondents said very important, pluralities of black/African American and Hispanic respondents selected somewhat important (p = .030).
  • Nearly twice as many black/African American respondents as white respondents correctly answered that Michigan requires K–12 public school students to have an online learning experience in high school (37 percent and 20 percent, respectively) (p = .020).

Age

  • While slim majorities of 18- to 24-year-old and 25- to 34-year-old respondents would enroll their child in a 100 percent online curriculum, majorities of all older age groups would not (p = .000).

Education Level

  • While a majority of respondents—regardless of educational attainment—reported they are very likely or somewhat likely to enroll a child in an online course not offered face-to-face by their school, the response increases steadily from 67 percent of respondents with less than a high school diploma, to 77 percent with some college, to 86 percent with postgraduate study or degree (p = .026).

Survey of Michigan College Students

The electronic survey of Michigan college students included 400 respondents. Of these, 89 percent said that they attend college in Michigan (91 percent in 2017), and 86 percent graduated from a Michigan high school or home school (89 percent in 2017). Given the potential difficulty in obtaining 400 completed surveys due to available panel members meeting the criteria (current college students in Michigan), it was impractical to establish rigid quotas for subgroups within the sample. As a result, 73 percent of respondents were female—nearly the same share as in 2017 (76 percent). However, in both 2017 and 2019, there were no statistically significant differences between males and females on survey responses.

Online Learning Activities and Tools

To begin, respondents were asked questions about online learning activities in high school and college, tools that they used in high school, and tools that they are currently using in college. In the 2017 survey, when asked how many classes they took in high school that used a learning management system, the majority (62 percent) of respondents said that they took a few (35 percent) or none (27 percent). But in this survey, the majority of respondents said they almost all (34 percent) or most (20 percent) of their high school classes used a learning management system. This is a substantial change in practice and experience across the two surveys.

Overall, the 2019 results reflecting on high school line up more closely with the college experience reported by respondents than in 2017:

  • Three quarters said that they had taken a college or university course that used a learning management system (compared to 90 percent in 2017).
  • Nearly the same share (84 percent) think that students who used a learning management system in high school are better prepared for college/university as in 2017 (86 percent).

As shown in Table 5, while online learning activities are more common in college than high school, the margin of difference has decreased dramatically between 2017 and 2019. In 2017, spreads of 20 to 30 percent were common across each aspect of online learning (where college use was higher than high school). But in this survey, three of the six aspects are nearly equal between high school and college use (viewing grades, turning in assignments, and accessing course materials), and the gap in the remaining three items is smaller in 2019 than in 2017.

Table 5. Online Learning Activities of Michigan College Students
2017 2019
Activity College/University High School College/University High School
View my grades 91% 61% 72% 69%
Turn in assignments 88% 58% 73% 63%
Access course readings or materials 88% 53% 67% 67%
Contribute responses to a course discussion board or forum 87% 33% 72% 49%
Watch course videos/lectures 86% 41% 75% 50%
Interact with my instructor 86% 40% 73% 53%

Online Courses

Next, respondents were asked about online courses that they might have taken in high school or at their college/university. When asked how important it was for students in middle school or high school to have the option of enrolling in an online class in their local school district, Michigan college students had similar sentiment to other Michigan adults, with 91 percent saying it was either very important (51 percent) or somewhat important (40 percent). This is a slight increase from 87 percent in 2017.

A majority (73 percent) of respondents reported taking an online course during high school, and the average number of online courses was 3.2 during high school. Both of those responses are higher than in 2017, when 59 percent reported taking at least one class and the average number of online courses was 2.5. Once again, a strong majority (71 percent) said that they have taken an online course at their college/university (81 percent in 2017). Of those that said they have not taken an online course in their college/university, most (61 percent) said that it is either very likely (24 percent) or somewhat likely (37 percent) that they will take an online course before they graduate—nearly identical to 2017 (62 percent).

In the final three questions to college students about their online experiences, there is great consistency between 2017 and 2019 respondents:

  • A strong majority (76 percent in 2019, 78 percent in 2017) feel that students who took an online course in high school are better prepared for college/university.
  • Similar shares believe they would have benefited from more online learning opportunities in high school as they look back at their path to college (77 percent in 2019, 75 percent in 2017).
  • Nine in ten believe it is very likely (46 percent) or somewhat likely (44 percent) that they will engage in online learning as part of their future job, compared to 93 percent in 2017.

Appendix A: Michigan Virtual Statewide Survey of Michigan Adults

Hello! This survey is being conducted by Public Sector Consultants, a nonpartisan policy research firm in Lansing, Michigan. We are interested in your opinions about online learning opportunities for public school students in Michigan.

Your participation in this survey is voluntary. Your responses are confidential and will not be linked to you in any reports. The survey will take only a few minutes and your comments are greatly appreciated. If you have any questions about the survey, please contact Jeff Williams of Public Sector Consultants at (517) 484-4954 or jwilliams@pscinc.com.

[N = 800 in 2017, N=600 in 2019 unless otherwise noted]

Introduction

Q1. To begin, how important do you think it is for students in middle school and high school to have the option of enrolling in an online class at their local school district?
Statement 2017 2019
Very important 38% 38%
Somewhat important 45% 39%
Not that important 12% 15%
Not at all important 5% 8%
Q2. For current Michigan students in Grades 6-12, how likely do you think it is that they will take an online course …
Statement Very Likely Somewhat Likely Somewhat Unlikely Very Unlikely
Before they graduate from high school
2017 32% 45% 17% 6%
2019 33% 43% 14% 10%
When they go to college or vocational training
2017 60% 35% 4% 1%
2019 46% 38% 8% 7%
When they join the workforce (on the job training)
2017 42% 39% 16% 3%
2019 43% 33% 16% 9%
Q3. If you had a child in a K-12 school, how likely would you be to enroll the child in . . .
Statement Very Likely Somewhat Likely Somewhat Unlikely Very Unlikely
A full-time, public cyber charter school where the child receives 100% of their instruction online.
2017 16% 29% 28% 27%
2019 19% 24% 26% 31%
A single online course to overcome a scheduling conflict that prevents the child from taking the course face-to-face in the school.
2017 34% 36% 16% 14%
2019 24% 42% 20% 14%
A single online course to provide access to a course not offered face-to-face by the school.
2017 26% 44% 13% 7%
2019 32% 43% 16% 9%
A single online course to retake a course that the child had previously failed.
2017 41% 37% 11% 11%
2019 31% 40% 17% 12%

Opinions about Online Learning

Next, we would like to get your opinion about online learning and how it is delivered in Michigan’s public schools.

Q4. For each of the following statements, please tell us whether you think it is true or false or if you don’t know.
Statement True False Don’t Know
Michigan requires K-12 public school students to have an online learning experience in order to graduate from high school.
2017 26% 44% 30%
2019 23% 34% 43%
Michigan middle and high school students can take up to 2 online courses per academic term.
2017 30% 19% 51%
2019 33% 17% 50%
Each online student is required to have a local school staff member assigned to provide onsite support to the student during the online course.
2017 45% 13% 41%
2019 36% 13% 52%

[Programming Note: Have this text appear AFTER they have answered q4]:

So you know, each of the three statements about online learning in Michigan are actually true.

Next, we would like to know how much you agree or disagree with some statements about online learning.

Q5. For each of the following statements, tell us if you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or strongly disagree with each statement.
Statement Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree
Knowing how to learn online is part of what it means be college and career ready after high school.
2017 10% 15% 45% 30%
2019 5% 9% 43% 44%
All students would benefit from developing the skills to be a successful online learner.
2017 5% 18% 45% 32%
2019 4% 10% 43% 43%
Q6. Which of the following comes closest to your opinion?
Statement 2017 2019
Michigan high school students should be required to take at least one online course prior to graduation 35% 34%
Michigan high school students should be required to take at least one online course each year prior to graduation 34% 39%
Michigan high school students should not be a required to take an online course prior to graduation 31% 28%
Q7. Next, we would like your prediction on the future of online learning in Michigan. What percentage of Michigan K–12 students do you think will enroll in any online course in the next year? What about ten years from now?
Statement 2017 2019
Next year [AVG. = 30.1] [AVG. = 31.0]
Ten years from now [AVG. = 59.2] [AVG. = 59.6]

Demographics

Q8.Are you currently employed or in school? IF YES, are you required to take classes for continuing education or certification online, is it optional/possible for you to take continuing education or certifications online, or are online classes/courses not available for your profession?
Statement 2017 2019
No 60% 60%
Yes; IF YES (all that apply): 40% 40%
I am required to take classes for continuing education or certification online 28% 31%
It is optional/possible to take continuing education or certifications online 45% 42%
Online continuing education or certification are not available for your profession 30% 27%
Q9.Do you have any children who are . . .? [MARK ALL THAT APPLY]
2017 2019
Statement Yes Yes
Pre-K 11% 10%
K-5 14% 15%
6-12 grade 18% 18%
Adults 37% 34%
Q10. In what year were you born [AGE]?
Response 2017 2019
18-24 10% 12%
25-34 20% 16%
35-44 17% 15%
45-54 14% 18%
55-64 21% 18%
65+ 28% 21%
Q11. What is the highest level of education you have completed?
Statement 2017 2019
Less than high school 2% 3%
High school graduate (diploma, GED) 19% 20%
Some college 27% 23%
College graduate (associate’s or bachelor’s) 40% 38%
Postgraduate study or degree (master’s, professional, or doctorate) 12% 16%
Q12. What is your gender?
Response 2017 2019
Male 50% 50%
Female 50% 50%
Q13. What is your annual household income?
Statement 2017 2019
Less than $24,999 18% 18%
$25,000 to $49,999 30% 27%
$50,000 to $74,999 23% 22%
$75,000 to $99,999 14% 17%
$100,000 or more 15% 16%
Q14. What is your racial or ethnic background? [IF HISPANIC “E”, ALSO ASK Q18, OTHERWISE SURVEY COMPLETE]
Statement 2017 2019
White 82% 74%
Black or African American 10% 15%
American Indian or Alaska Native 1% 1%
Asian 3% 3%
Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish Origin 2% 5%
Some other race 2% 2%
Q15. In addition to being Hispanic, Latino or Spanish, do you identify yourself with a particular race?
2017 2019
Statement (N = 16) (N = 32)
White 76% 50%
Black or African American 0% 6%
American Indian or Alaska Native 6% 3%
Asian 0% 0%
Some other race 0% 34%

Thank you for your participation!

Appendix B: Michigan Virtual Michigan College Student Survey

Hello! This survey is being conducted by Public Sector Consultants, a nonpartisan policy research firm in Lansing, Michigan. We are interested in your opinions about online learning opportunities for public school students in Michigan, and would like to learn about your experiences with online learning in high school and college.

Your participation in this survey is voluntary. Your responses are confidential and will not be linked to you in any reports. The survey will take only a few minutes and your comments are greatly appreciated. If you have any questions about the survey, please contact Jeff Williams of Public Sector Consultants at 517-484-4954 or jwilliams@pscinc.com.

[N = 400 unless otherwise noted]

Online Learning Activities and Tools

First, we would like to ask some questions about online learning activities and tools that you might have used in high school or are using now at your college/university. One common tool for online learning is a learning management system. A learning management system is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting, and delivery of educational courses.

Q1. How many classes did you take in high school that used a Learning Management System (e.g. Blackboard, Desire2Learn, Moodle, Brainhoney, Google Classroom, Schoology, etc.)?
Statement 2017 2019
Almost all 21% 34%
Most 17% 20%
A few 35% 24%
None 27% 22%
Q2. Do you think students who used a Learning Management System in high school are better prepared for college/university?
Statement 2017 2019
Yes 86% 84%
No 14% 16%
Q3. Have you taken a college/university class that used a learning management system?
Statement 2017 2019
Yes 90% 75%
No 10% 25%
Q4. Did you do any of the following activities online when you were in high school or at your college/university? [MARK ALL THAT APPLY]
2017 2019
Activity High School College/University High School College/University
Access course readings or materials 53% 88% 67% 67%
Contribute responses to a course discussion board or forum 33% 87% 49% 72%
Interact with my instructor 40% 86% 53% 73%
Turn in assignments 58% 88% 63% 73%
View my grades 61% 91% 69% 72%
Watch course videos/lectures 41% 86% 50% 75%

Online Courses

Next, we would like to ask some questions about online courses you might have taken in high school or at your college/university. For this survey, an online course is one where most or all of the instruction is received online—through a computer or mobile device—rather than in person.

Q5. How important do you think it is for students in middle school and high school to have the option of enrolling in an online class at their local school district?
Statement 2017 2019
Very important 45% 51%
Somewhat important 42% 40%
Not that important 11% 7%
Not at all important 2% 3%
Q6. How many online courses did you take during high school?
Statement 2017 2019
Average Number of Online Courses 2.5 3.2
Q7. Do you think students who took an online course in high school are better prepared for college/university?
Statement 2017 2019
Yes 78% 76%
No 22% 24%
Q8. Have you taken an online course at your college/university?
Statement 2017 2019
Yes [IF YES, GO TO Q10] 81% 71%
No [IF NO, ANSWER Q9] 19% 29%
Q9. How likely do you think it is that you will take an online course before you graduate from your college/university?
2017 2019
Statement (N = 76) (N = 115)
Very likely 23% 24%
Somewhat likely 39% 37%
Somewhat unlikely 18% 18%
Very unlikely 20% 20%

About You

Q10. Looking back, do you think you would have benefited from more online learning opportunities in high school?
Statement 2017 2019
Yes 75% 77%
No 22% 23%
Q11. To what extent do you believe you will need to engage in online learning as part of your future job (e.g., for professional development)?
Statement 2017 2019
Very likely 53% 46%
Somewhat likely 40% 44%
Somewhat unlikely 6% 8%
Very unlikely 1% 2%
Q12. Did you graduate from a Michigan high school or from a high school in another state?
Statement 2017 2019
I graduated from a Michigan high school 88% 86%
I graduated from a high school in another state 11% 11%
Other: [PLEASE SPECIFY] 1% 13%
Q13. Did you attend college in Michigan or another state?
Statement 2017 2019
Michigan 91% 89%
Another state 9% 11%

Demographics

Q14. In what year were you born [AGE]?
2017 2019
Statement (N = 400) (N = 400)
18-24 54% 54%
25-29 23% 23%
30-34 12% 12%
35-39 8% 8%
40+ 3% 3%
Q15. What is your gender?
2017 2019
Statement (N = 400) (N = 400)
Male 22% 25%
Female 76% 73%
Transgender 2% 1%
Gender nonconforming <1% <1%
Different identity (please state): <1% <1%
Q16. What is your racial or ethnic background? [IF HISPANIC “E”, ALSO ASK Q17, OTHERWISE SURVEY COMPLETE]
2017 2019
Statement (N = 400) (N = 400)
White 73% 61%
Black or African American 17% 24%
American Indian or Alaska Native 1% 1%
Asian 4% 5%
Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish Origin 4% 6
Some other race 1% 2%
Q17. In addition to being Hispanic, Latino or Spanish, do you identify yourself with a particular race?
2017 2019
Statement (N = 20) (N = 24)
White 69% 46%
Black or African American 6% 17%
American Indian or Alaska Native 0% 4%
Asian 0% 0%
Some other race 25% 33%

Thank you for your participation!

Endnote

[1] A learning management system was defined to survey respondents as a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting, and delivery of educational courses (such as Blackboard, D2L, Moodle, BrainHoney, Google Classroom, Schoology, etc.). An online course was defined as a course where most or all of the instruction is received online—through a computer or mobile device—rather than in person.

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